Child support is money paid by parents who do not live with their child, or who share care with someone else. The money is to help with the cost of raising a child.
Liable parents can manage their child support payments through Inland Revenue by using a formula assessment or voluntary agreement, or they can be arranged through a private agreement with the other parent or non-parent carer.
For child support managed by Inland Revenue, liable parent payments are passed to receiving carers to the extent that the receiving carer has not received a benefit from Te Manatū Whakahiato Ora the Ministry of Social Development. The withheld amount is the Crown entitlement and this is legally enforceable. Receiving carer entitlements are not recognised as revenue, and any funds yet to be passed to the receiving carers are recorded in the 'child support trust account' as presented in the 'Schedule of non-departmental trust money'.
Penalties are imposed when there are defaults on child support payments.
Child support receivables include the Crown entitlement and penalties. The Crown entitlement and penalties are presented as revenue in the 'Schedule of non-departmental revenue'. Receivables are initially recognised at fair value and are subsequently tested for impairment at year end.
Allowances for amounts that Inland Revenue does not expect to recover are recognised when there is objective evidence that the asset is impaired. Impairments are included in the Schedule of non-departmental expenditure. Impairment losses can be reversed where there is evidence that the impaired value of the asset has increased.
There are upcoming changes for the Crown entitlement. From 1 July 2023, Crown entitlement will no longer be with-held by the Crown and the total liable parent payments will be passed on to receiving carers.
At the end of the year, receivables are valued by an independent external valuer using predictive models. We provided data to the valuer on receivable balances and repayments. The data was up to 30 June 2022.
To calculate the impairment of receivables, assumptions are applied to future repayment behaviour, as well as economic factors such as discount rates. The recoverable amount of receivables is calculated by forecasting the expected repayments based on analysis of historical debt data and then discounting it using an appropriate rate. If the recoverable amount of the portfolio is less than the carrying amount, the carrying amount is reduced to the recoverable amount. Alternatively, if the recoverable amount is more, the carrying amount is increased.
As noted by the valuer, it is not possible to assess with any certainty the implications of COVID-19 on the value of child support receivables. There will be an impact on liable parents, and it will affect their ability to repay child support. Repayment assumptions used for the valuation reflect a 3-year average period prior to the pandemic. As economic conditions progress to a post-pandemic normal in the coming years, there is additional uncertainty in our projections of fair value as past experience may not be indicative of the future in a post-pandemic economic environment.
The fair value of child support receivables at 30 June 2022 is $299 million, an increase of $71 million from last year.
|Actual 2021 ($000)||Receivables||Actual 2022 ($000)|
|Receivables - child support|
|$228,050||Carrying value receivables||$298,929|
|Current and non-current apportionment|
|$228,050||Carrying value receivables||$298,929|
|Ageing profile of gross receivables|
|$195,171||Less than 12 months||$1,379|
|$202,752||1 to 2 years||$195,171|
|$584,616||Greater than 2 years||$759,743|
|$982,539||Total past due||$956,293|
|$982,539||Total gross receivables||$956,293|
|100%||% Past due||100%|
|Receivables - impairment|
|$271,708||Impairment losses recognised||$83,509|
|$(991,152)||Amounts written off as uncollectable||$(180,634)|
The estimated recoverable amount of this portfolio and the significant assumptions underpinning the valuation of the carrying value receivables are shown below.
|Actual 2021||Estimates and assumptions||Actual 2022|
|$13,553||Recoverable amount of receivables not due - Crown entitlement ($000)||n/a|
|$155,345||Recoverable amount of receivables past due - Crown entitlement ($000)||$220,758|
|$59,152||Recoverable amount of receivables past due - penalties ($000)||$78,171|
|$228,050||Total carrying value||$298,929|
|$(13,800)||Impact on the recoverable amount of a 1% increase in discount rate ($000)||$(8,059)|
|$14,700||Impact on the recoverable amount of a 1% decrease in discount rate ($000)||$8,544|
The Crown does not hold any collateral or any other credit enhancements over receivables for child support that are past due.
Receivables for child support are widely dispersed over a number of customers, and as a result, the Crown does not have any material individual concentrations of credit risk.